Factors affecting the development of gingivitis are: poor oral hygiene, plaque, smoking, lack of vitamins and minerals, diabetes, hormonal changes (puberty, menopause, pregnancy, menstruation), stress, genetic predisposition. The primary causes of gingivitis are bacterial plaque, and a lack of oral hygiene, and in ulcerative gingivitis patients are almost always a strong smokers. In the first place the simplex gingivitis (gingivitis of dirty mouth) caused by plaque, which occurs in almost 95 percent of the people. The dental bacterial plaque is a soft, yellowish change that firmly adheres to the tooth, especially along the edges of the gums. Smaller quantities are not visible, but only when there are special paint by colors. Created by attaching proteins from saliva on the tooth surface, and then comes to settling of bacteria that cause inflammation. The following is acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis with the previously mentioned one of the most common disease of the gingiva, often repeated and developed in ulcerative periodontitis. It starts at a young age, usually in the fall and winter, or after a stressful situation. From basic types, there is gingivitis gravidarum (pregnancy) and gingivitis pubertas (at puberty) who, under the influence by hormonal changes.
Treatment of gingivitis is mainly focused on the removal of everything that causes local irritation and to prevent disposal of bacterial plaque, which is the initiator of inflammation of the gingiva. In some cases, it is recommended the use of antibiotics, and in severe cases we recommend the use of metronidazole. Oral hygiene should be performed regularly and properly, properly selected brush and with mandatory use of dental floss.